TACTICAL COMBAT SKILLS
Cover And Concealment
If the enemy can see you, he can shoot you. So, you must be concealed from enemy observation and have cover from enemy fire. Cover gives protection from bullets, fragments of exploding rounds. Cover can also conceal you from enemy observation. Cover can be natural or man-made. Natural cover includes such things as logs, trees, stumps, ravines, and hollows. Manmade cover includes such things as fighting positions, trenches, walls, rubble, and craters. Even the smallest depression or fold in the ground can give some cover. Look for and use every bit of cover the terrain offers. In combat, you need protection from enemy direct and indirect fire.
To get protection from enemy fire in the offense or when moving, use routes that put cover between you and the places where the enemy is known or thought to be. Use ravines, gullies, hills, wooded areas, walls, and other cover to keep the enemy from seeing and firing at you. Avoid open areas, and do not skyline yourself on hilltops and ridges.
Concealment is anything that hides you from enemy observation. Concealment does not protect you from enemy fire. Do not think that you are protected from the enemy's fire just because you are concealed. Concealment, like cover, can also be natural or man-made. Natural concealment includes such things as bushes, grass, trees, and shadows
Cover Stops bullets, Concealment doesn't
Vehicles As Cover
Always be aware of cover that can go boom!
Be behind the wheels
Be prone if you can
If the vehicle is manned, sound off, let the occupants know your using them as cover.
If the vehicle is operational, do not be next to it, be as far away as the situation will allow.
Remember kids, to a tank you are crunchie, and taste good with ketchup
Bodies As Cover
If needed the deceased can be used as cover.
(If they are not deceased you should really ask first)
Enfilade And Defilade
Enfilade and defilade are concepts in Military tactics used to describe a military formation's exposure to enemy fire. In addition, enfilade fire is used to describe gunfire directed against an "enfiladed" formation or position.
In the broadest sense, these terms simply mean an advantageous position to fire from (enfilade) or a position of cover from incoming fire (defilade)
The Overwatch is generally the person or group that is overwatching, or supporting, the advancing person or group. The overwatch will take a position where it can observe all the terrain ahead, including enemy positions, so it can provide cover fire for the advancing group.
Effectiveness Of the Overwatch
There are two huge factors in the effectiveness of the overwatch position.
The first factor is providing cover for the overwatch.
The second factor is providing unobstructed lines of fire, which INCLUDES friendly units.
Your unit's ability to move depends on your movement skills and those of your fellow Group members. Use the following techniques to avoid being seen or heard by the enemy:
Stop, look, and listen before moving. Look for your next position before leaving a position.
Look for covered and concealed routes on which to move.
Change direction slightly from time to time when moving through tall grass.
Use battlefield noises, such as weapon noises, to conceal movement noises.
Cross roads and trails at places that have the most cover and concealment (large culverts, low spots, curves, or bridges).
Avoid steep slopes and places with loose dirt or stones.
Avoid cleared, open areas and tops of hills and ridges.
Always be looking for where to go if there is contact.
Bounding or leapfrogging (also called The Buddy System) is a technique for advancing personnel and/or equipment on or past a target area being defended by an opposing force. This technique is taught in Basic Training and reinforced with all unit and advanced training throughout a soldier's career. It can be modified for use with equipment as well as personnel.
Peeling (peel Right-Left)
Peeling: This simple but highly effective technique is mainly used to move to the flank; elements or individuals are in line facing the enemy threat and will ‘peel out’ to either the left or right. This is a good technique for moving along a linear feature, such as a road or ditch, while producing maximum suppressive fire. It is better to ‘peel’ than to simply get up and go.
Center peel, or simply "peel" for short, is a type of retreat practiced by modern-day infantry. This particular tactic is more specifically designed for situations where smaller groups of infantry withdraw from an engagement of a much larger force. In general terms, it is a sloped or diagonal retreat from the enemy.
The reverse of bounding
Fatigue, Stamina & Load Management
Your stamina will be drained more or less depending on various factors, some of them more severe than others. Here’s a short list of all currently implemented fatigue influences:
Character stance: Moving upright, crouched or prone.
Weapon holding: Lowering your weapon, raising it or moving with the gun high ready
Movement speed: Running, jogging or walking
Terrain steepness: Walking on slopes, up or down hill
Injuries: Pain and blood volume
Carrying: Both units and objects
Effects of High Fatigue
Depending on how much your character is fatigued you will experience various visual, audible and physical symptoms:
Breathing sounds (with different intensity and frequency)
Black flashing border when hitting the bodies limits
Not being able to sprint
Not being able to jog
Slowed down movement whilst swimming or diving
Weapon sway (majorly reduced when crouched or prone)
Watch your weight (load), eat right, exercise, and try not to carry the entire arsenal in your backpack.
The lighter you are, the less interruption you'll have to deal with from fatigue and resting.
This is ARMA not a marathon, in most situations the object will still be there if you walk and not sprint. Normal combat pace should be a walk, a job if double time is required, sprinting as a form of movement is reckless and puts the Group at risk.
When in a moment, never let your stamina run out, when you have no stamina left that's when you will need to run to cover.
Halts while in a movement also provide a moment to validate 360 security as well as recover stamina.
Halt before a significant move, during long sustained tactical movements, or before moving across a danger area.
If you are running out of stamina before the rest of the Group, it's your problem, solve it.
Pack according to the theory that whatever can go wrong will.
What you need to live in the worst-case serano needs to be in your uniform. (Pistol mag’s, map, map tools, basic medical loadout, and some kind of signal [smoke etc.].
Your basic combat loadout should be in your vest, (main weapon ammo, grenades)
Your backpack is mission related items, (long range radio, demo, medical supplies [medic])
In its simplest form, without your vest and backpack you should have enough to survive, and evade if needed.
FORMATIONS AND MOVEMENT TECHNIQUES
Movement techniques combined with movement formations allow units to conduct tactical movement in any situation. These combinations can be used when all elements are mounted, or when there is a combination of mounted and dismounted forces, regardless of what type of vehicle is used.
Tactical Unit Movement
Tactical Unit Movement is the movement of a special operations unit assigned a tactical mission under combat conditions when not in direct ground contact with the enemy. Special Operations Tactical movement is based on the anticipation of avoiding contact with the enemy, while en route to the mission object.
Movement ends when ground contact is made, or the unit reaches its objective and begins again when leaving the mission object.
Movement is not maneuver. Maneuver happens once a unit has contacted the enemy.
Be unseen, leave no trace Stealth!
Avoid all contact, till the unit is at the mission objective contact needs to me made at the time and place of the units choosing.
Cohesion, stay together
Momentum, don’t be late, or early
Avoid surprise by the enemy.
When necessary, transition quickly to maneuver while minimizing enemy effects.
Get to the right place, at the right time, ready to fight.
Units moving behind enemy lines seek to avoid enemy contact.
Avoid chance enemy contact, if possible.
Move on covered and concealed routes.
Avoid likely ambush sites and other danger areas.
Practice camouflage, noise, and light discipline.
Maintain 360-degree security.
Make contact with the smallest element if enemy contact is unavoidable.
Retain the initiative to attack at the time and place of the unit's choice.
Movement techniques combined with movement formations allow units to conduct tactical movement in any situation. These combinations can be used when all elements are mounted, or when there is a combination of mounted and dismounted forces, regardless of what type of vehicle is used.
The three standard movement techniques are traveling, traveling overwatch, and bounding overwatch. Different movement techniques are used based on the likelihood of enemy contact.
The traveling technique is used when enemy contact is not likely but speed is necessary. In the traveling technique, the distance between individuals is about 10 meters with 20 meters between units. It has the following characteristics:
More control than traveling overwatch but less than bounding overwatch.
The traveling overwatch technique is the basic movement technique and is used when enemy contact is possible…
In traveling overwatch, the lead Group must be far enough ahead of the rest of the unit to detect or engage any enemy before the enemy observes or fires on the main body. However, it must be close enough to be supported by the unit's small arm's fires. This is normally between 50 to 100 meters, depending on terrain, vegetation, and light and weather conditions.
Always make contact with the smallest element possible
In a column formation, only the lead Group should use the traveling overwatch; however, if greater dispersion is desired, all units may use it.
In other formations, all units use traveling overwatch unless the unit leader specifies not to.
Traveling overwatch has the following characteristics:
Good security forward
The bounding overwatch technique is used when enemy contact is likely, or when crossing a danger area. In the bounding overwatch technique, the distance between men remains approximately 20 meters. The distance between teams and units varies.
The Group or Team has a bounding element and an overwatch element. The bounding element moves while the overwatch element occupies an overwatch position that can cover the route of the bounding element by fire. Each bound is within the supporting range of the overwatch element.
Group Bounding Overwatch
The length of a bound depends on the terrain, visibility, and control.Before a bound, the leader gives the following instructions to his subordinates:
Direction of the enemy if known
Position of overwatch elements
Next overwatch position
Route of the bounding element
What to do after the bounding element reaches the next position
How the elements receive follow-on orders
The characteristics of bounding overwatch are:
Unit Bounding Overwatch
Method One. When Detachment uses bounding overwatch, one Group bounds and one Group overwatches; the third Group awaits orders. Forward observers stay with the overwatching Group to call for fire. Detachment leaders normally stay with the overwatching Group who use machine guns and attached weapons to support the bounding team.
Method Two. Another way is to have one Group use bounding overwatch and have the other Groups use traveling or traveling overwatch technique.
Team Bounding Overwatch Movement Considerations. When deciding where to move the bounding element, consider:
Where the enemy is likely to be
The routes to the next overwatch position
The weapons ranges of the overwatching unit
The responsiveness of the rest of the unit
The fields of fire at the next overwatch position
The traveling movement technique is used when enemy contact is not expected or likely.
The traveling overwatch movement technique is used when enemy contact is possible.
The bounding overwatch movement technique is used when enemy contact is likely or expected.
Formations are arrangements of elements and soldiers in relation to each other. Ghosts of Battle Groups use formations for control based on the situation. Leaders are where they can best control formations. Ghosts of Battle Groups use two basic types of formations, Team and Group formations.
Control. Every Group and soldier have a standard position. Soldiers can see their team leaders. Fire team leaders can see their Group leaders. Leaders control their units using arm-and-hand signals. (Just kidding, radio commands are used)
Security. Formations also provide 360-degree security and allow units to give the weight of their firepower to the flanks or front in anticipation of enemy contact.
Flexibility. Formations do not demand parade ground precision. Groups must retain the flexibility needed to vary their formations to the situation. The use of formations allows soldiers to execute battle drills more quickly and gives them the assurance that their leaders and buddy team members are in their expected positions and performing the right tasks.
Group uses movement formation and technique ordered by the leader
Leaders remain oriented (within 300 meters) and follow planned route
Unit will maintain 360-degree security and a 100 percent alert during movement.
Unit maintains 360-degree security and a minimum of 75 percent security during halts.
If contact with the enemy is made, it is made with the smallest element possible.
Control measures are used during movement (head counts, rally points, phase lines, etc.)
Each Soldier maintains visual contact with the soldier in front of them and behind them.
The point man IS responsibility is forward security for the element, and land navigation
Avoid Detection: Patrols must use stealth, and use the cover and concealment of the terrain to its maximum advantage. Exploit the enemy’s weaknesses, and attempt to time movements to coincide with other operations that are distracting the enemy.
Maintain Constant Security: The Group must use both active and passive security measures constantly. Give men or subunits responsibility for security en-route, at danger areas, at patrol bases, and most importantly in the objective area.
Plan for Use of Support Fires: even if you think it may not be needed during movement.
The term team formation refers to the Soldiers’ relative positions within the team. Team formations include the team wedge, team file and team line. Each formation has advantages and disadvantages. Regardless of which formation the team employs, each Soldier must know his location in the formation relative to the other fire team members and team leader. Each Soldier covers a set area of responsibility for observation and direct fire as the team is moving. To provide the unit with all-around protection, these areas interlock. Team leaders are constantly aware of their teams’ sectors of fire and correct them as required.
The team leader adjusts the team’s formation as necessary while the team is moving. The distance between Soldiers will be determined by the mission, the nature of the threat, the closeness of the terrain, and by the visibility. As a general rule, the unit should be dispersed up to the limit of control. This allows for a wide area to be covered, makes the team’s movement difficult to detect, and makes it less vulnerable to enemy ground and air attack. Fire teams rarely act independently. However, in the event they do, when halted, they use a perimeter defense to ensure all-around security.
Column or File
The column of File is the most basic formation. (Sometimes simple works) Leaders use the file when employing the wedge is impractical. This formation most often is used in severely restrictive terrain, like inside a building; dense vegetation; limited visibility; and so forth. The distance between Soldiers in the column changes due to constraints of the situation, particularly when in urban operations. The file is also used as an infiltration technique when contact is not expected.
The wedge is one of the basic formations when contact is expected. The interval between Soldiers in the wedge formation is normally 10 meters. The wedge expands and contracts depending on the terrain. Units modify the wedge when rough terrain, poor visibility, or other factors make control of the wedge difficult. The normal interval is reduced so all team members still can see their team leader and all team leaders still can see their Team leader. The sides of the wedge can contract to the point where the wedge resembles a single file. Soldiers expand or resume their original positions when moving in less rugged terrain where control is easier. Offense. In a full Group movement, the operations sergeant of the assistant operations sergeant is in the lead position. In the split team situation, the team leader is in the lead position with his men echeloned to the right and left behind him. The positions for all may vary.
The side of the formation with the extra person is called the strong side, it's the leader's description to which side is to be the strong side.
The Line formation is primarily used when attacking or assaulting through an objective. The line provides maximum firepower to the front. When a Team is acting as the base Team, the fire team on the right is the base fire team.
The term Group formation refers to the relative locations of the teams. Group formations include the Group column, the Group line, Group echelon and Group file.
The Unit leader adjusts the Group’s formation as necessary while moving, primarily through the three movement techniques. The Group leader exercises mission command primarily through the two team leaders and moves in the formation where he can best achieve this. The Group leader is responsible for 360-degree security, for ensuring the team’s sectors of fire are mutually supporting, and for being able to rapidly transition the Team upon contact. The Group leader designates one of the teams as the base fire team. The Group leader controls the Team’s speed and direction of movement through the base team while the other team and attachments cue their movement off the base fire team. This concept applies when not in contact and when in contact with the enemy. Weapons from the weapons Team (a medium machine gun or a Javelin) may be attached to the Team for movement or throughout the operation. These high value assets need to be positioned so they are protected and can be quickly brought into the engagement when required. Ideally, these weapons should be positioned so they are between the two fire teams.
The Group column is the Group’s main formation for movement unless preparing for an assault. It provides good dispersion both laterally and in-depth Offense without sacrificing control. It also facilitates maneuver. The lead team is the base team. Groups can move in either a column wedge or a modified column wedge. Rough terrain, poor visibility, and other factors can require the Team to modify the wedge into a file for control purposes. As the terrain becomes less rugged and control becomes easier, the Soldiers resume their original positions.
The Group file has the same characteristics as the team file. In the event the terrain is severely restrictive or extremely close, teams within the Team file also may be in file. This disposition is not optimal for enemy contact, but provides the Group leader with maximum control. He increases control over the formation moving forward to the first or second position. Moving forward enables him to exert greater morale presence by leading from the front, and to be immediately available to make vital decisions. Moving a team leader to the last position can provide additional control over the rear of the formation.
The Group wedge is very similar to the team wedge, it just covers a much larger area. Used in terrain with limited cover, like a desert.
In the Group line, the base platoon is the center team. This is the basic Group assault formation, once ready to assault the teams move into team line formations.
The Group line with teams on line is the most difficult formation from which to make the transition to other formations.
Group Staggered Column
Staggered column is a military formation often used for walking along roads where Team members will walk in a zig-zag pattern.
“Contact” is when an individual or group initiate fire with the enemy or the enemy group initiate fire.
Reaction to Contact
Upon contact with the enemy, it is important for the unit in contact and the unit commander to make a quick decision on how to react. Soldiers immediately take up the nearest covered positions (unless ambushed) and return fire in the direction of contact. Group leaders locate and engage known or suspected enemy positions with well-aimed fire and report contact to the Team Leader.
Hasty Attack (You see them first)
Occasionally, while on patrol or while in movement, a unit may spot a smaller force which is unprepared for attack and moving towards your own unit. The enemy unit, once sighted, is seen to be in traveling order (the least defensive movement order). The defenders have a short amount of time to set up an ambush. A hasty ambush should only be used against a force which is not significantly larger than the defending unit, and is in traveling order. The CO of the ambushing unit should quickly organize his unit so that fire can be concentrated upon the moving attack force as they pass through the defender's position. The key concept is to maximize overlapping fields of fire.
Ambush (they see you first)
Near Ambush, in a near ambush, you need to get out of the kill zone ASAP, move in the direction the attacker's lines and move through their line
Far Ambush, take cover, return fire with indirect, or break contact.
Another very important action to practice is counter-ambush. When caught in an ambush human nature takes over and everyone will try to find cover. This is exactly what the enemy wants. The enemy will pick an ambush site with the least cover available. When your patrol enters the killing
zone the enemy will open fire. If all your men hit the ground trying to find cover you will remain in the killing zone and everyone in the patrol will likely become casualties. Therefore, you must drill on counter-ambush tactics. The only way to survive an ambush is to immediately begin rapid fire in the direction of the ambush and assault with utmost speed and violence.
You must try to gain fire superiority and escape the killing zone to take the assault to the enemy. If you can force the enemy to keep his head down by superior firepower you will have an excellent chance of destroying the ambushing force. This action must be drilled into the men until it becomes a reaction. Anything less will result in the Group being wiped out within moments.
Units immediately inside the ambush zone or kill zone should immediately move as rapidly through the area of fire while returning fire at the highest rate possible. Ambushed units should not halt, but move either towards the enemy or in the direction which is the shortest route out of the kill zone. Units outside of the kill zone (often units further back in the column) should maneuver quickly to assist in laying down suppressive fire upon the ambushing enemy units, or, if the opportunity presents itself, to attack the ambushers themselves.
SUMMARY: In an ambush situation there is no time for anything except survival. The object is to gain fire superiority and get clear of the killing zone. Hesitation or taking cover will almost always result in the destruction of the patrol.
Meeting Engagement (see each other at the same time)
Definition: A combat action that occurs when a moving force, incompletely deployed for battle, engages an enemy at an unexpected time and place.
Get fire superiority
Call for reinforcements, if none is available break contact, and maneuver for better position
Bypass (You see them first, and they do not see you)
Simply the unit just sneaks past the enemy.
Types of Fires
Cone Of Fire
When several rounds are fired in a burst from any gun, each round takes a slightly different trajectory. The pattern these rounds form on the way to the target is called a cone of fire
Grazing fire occurs when the center of the cone of fire does not rise more than 1 meter above the ground. When firing on level or uniformly sloping terrain.
Point Fire is a weapon fire that is focused and aim at a target with a direct line of sight.
Indirect fire is aiming and firing a projectile without relying on a direct line of sight between the gun and its target, as in the case of direct fire. Aiming is performed by calculating azimuth and inclination, and may include correcting aim by observing the fall of shot and calculating new angles.
Fire Superiority means that one side is able to fire more rounds and/or more accurately than the other who becomes 'suppressed.' Accurate fire is also helpful in gaining fire superiority, combined they are deadly.
Sector Of Fire
A sector of fire is an area, which is required to be covered by an individual, a fire unit, Group or team.
Sectors of fire should be overlapping and intersecting.
Covering Fire and Suppressive
Both covering fire and suppressive fire involves lobbying an extreme number of bullets toward the enemies (Or at least the general direction of the enemies).
But covering fire is done when you’re trying to steer an enemy's fire away from something that you don’t want them to pockmark, for example: A medic conducting field first aid on wounded personnel.
Covering fire is done to support other unit/personnel with their operation and/or mobilization.
Lift and Shift
When covering fire is used to cover another unit's movement to assault it will be necessary to lift and shift the fire so that the resulting unit is not affected by the covering fire. Once the assaulting unit is in place, they will call for the fire to be lifted and moved to a new target, it is important that the rate and volume of fire does not change only the target. If there is any change to the rate or volume of fire the enemy might start to suspect the assault.
Suppressive fire, on the other hand, means that no one is needing cover:
The idea is to make a storm of metal so intense that the enemies don’t even dare to even poke their head out of their covers, let alone returning fire. This will impede their motions and buy time for air support or more final solutions to finish them off, or to allow units to maneuver closer to them to get more of a fighting edge.
Suppressive fire is to prevent enemies from mobilizing or to conduct their operations efficiently.
Both have to do with mobilization and operating, which are all vital to a fight. A combat unit who can mobilize more freely and operating more efficiently will usually emerge victorious over opponents who are starved of the two things above
One major purpose of suppressive fire to to gain fire superiority
CONDUCT AN ASSAULT / RAID
An Assault is to take a position or objective. And Stay
The purposes of Assault may include:
projection of force
to occupy territory,
gain an objective or
achieve some larger strategic, operational, or tactical goal.
A Raid is to take a position or objective. And Leave
The purposes of a raid may include:
to demoralize, confuse or exhaust the enemy
to ransack, pillage or plunder
to destroy specific goods or installations of military or economic value
to free POWs
to capture enemy soldiers for interrogation
to kill or capture specific key persons
to gather intelligence.
The initial process and characteristics are the same in either a raid or an assault.
The Unit gains and maintains the initiative and keeps constant pressure on the enemy throughout its area of operation.
Concentration is the massing of overwhelming effects of combat power to achieve a single purpose.
In the Assault/Raid, surprise is achieved by attacking the enemy at a time or place they do not expect or in a manner for which they are unprepared.
Tempo is the relative speed and rhythm of military operations over time with respect to the enemy. Controlling or altering tempo is necessary to retain the initiative.
The movement phase, is when a leader maneuvers their force in to the most tactical and favorable conditions for subsequent tactical actions (the how you get there)
The Attack phase incorporates coordinated movement, supported by direct and indirect fires.
Exploitation takes advantage of tactical opportunities, foreseen or unforeseen. This is also the phase where intelligence and other actions on the objective take place.
A pursuit is an offensive task designed to catch or cut off a hostile force attempting to escape, with the aim of destroying them. This phase is undertaken if the leader deems in mission essential.
If the objective was to take and hole, the next phase is to prepare for counterattack
Tasks to include:
Re-establish communication with higher command
Establish fire plane
Call for reinforcements
The leader designates the signal for withdrawal, order of withdrawal, Group rendezvous point, and alternate patrol base. The withdrawal needs to be done in an orderly fashion, to maintain security.
REORGANIZE A UNIT
This is the actions taken after the unit has lost the leader or leaders.
Next in command assume command
Re-establish contact with higher command.
Evac the wounded,
Continue mission, or withdraw based on remain capabilities
Military term for retreating or to get out of a bad situation before it gets worse.
A withdrawal utilizing cover, concealment, bounding and peeling.
Leader will order “BREAK CONTACT”
Leader will then designate the elements that will bound and which will cover
The covering element provides a base of fire.
The bounding element will pop smoke and bound to a covering position.
The bounding element will then start to provide covering fire
The fire element will pop smoke and bound
Rinse and repeat
The unit consolidates and reorganizes
REACT TO INDIRECT FIRE
Anyone detecting incoming, Sounds off with “INCOMING”
Every one seeks cover in the prone, (do not try to run to cover just get prone)
After the indirect fire impacts the leader will give a direction and distance to move.
Everyone runs out of the impact area in the provided direction, and distance
The unit consolidates and reorganizes
A danger area is any place on a unit’s route where the leader determines his unit may be exposed to enemy observation or fire. Some examples of danger areas are open areas, roads and trails, built-up areas, enemy positions, and natural and man-made obstacles. Bypass danger areas whenever possible.
Examples of danger areas include—
Open Areas. Conceal the unit on the near side and observe the area. Post security to give early warning. Send an element across to clear the far side. When cleared, cross the remainder of the unit at the shortest exposed distance and as quickly as possible.
Roads and Trails. Cross roads or trails at or near a bend, a narrow spot, or on low ground.
Villages. Pass villages on the downwind side and well away from them. Avoid animals, especially dogs, which might reveal the presence of the unit.
Enemy Positions. Pass on the downwind side (the enemy might have scout dogs). Be alert for trip wires and warning devices.
Minefields. Bypass minefields, if at all possible, even if it requires changing the route by a great distance. Clear a path through minefields only if necessary.
Streams. Select a narrow spot in the stream that offers concealment on both banks. Observe the far side carefully. Emplace near- and far-side security for early warning. Clear the far side and then cross rapidly but quietly.
Wire Obstacles. Avoid wire obstacles (the enemy covers obstacles with observation and fire).
Crossing Of Danger Areas
Regardless of the type of danger area, when the unit must cross one independently, or as the lead element of a larger force, it must perform the following:
When the lead element signals "danger area" (relayed throughout the unit), the unit halts.
The unit leader moves forward, confirms the danger area, and determines what technique the unit will use to cross.
The unit leader designates near-side and far-side rally points.
Near-side security observes to the flanks and overwatches the crossing.
When the near-side security is in place, the unit leader directs the far-side security team to cross the danger area.
The far-side security team clears the far side and establishes security observes to the flanks and overwatches the crossing. Then signals to the leader that the area is clear.
The unit quickly and quietly crosses the danger area.
The unit leader ensures accountability and resumes movement at normal speed.
Once across the danger area, the unit begins moving slowly on the required azimuth.
Definition. An ambush is a surprise attack from a concealed position.
Ambushes are complex multi-phase operations and are therefore usually planned in some detail. First, a suitable killing zone is identified. This is the place where the ambush will be laid. It is generally a place where enemy units are expected to pass, and which gives reasonable cover for the deployment, execution and extraction phases of the ambush.
The terrain for the ambush had to meet strict criteria:
provide concealment to prevent detection from the ground or air
enable ambush force to deploy, encircle and divide the enemy
allow for heavy weapons emplacements to provide sustained fire
enable the ambush force to set up observation posts for early detection of the enemy
permit the secret movement of Groups to the ambush position and the dispersal of Groups during withdrawal
One important feature of the ambush was that the target units should 'pile up' after being attacked, thus preventing them any easy means of withdrawal from the kill zone and hindering their use of heavy weapons and supporting fire. Terrain was usually selected which would facilitate this and slow down the enemy. Any terrain around the ambush site which was not favorable to the ambushing force, or which offered some protection to the target, was heavily mined and booby trapped or pre-registered for mortars.
Lazy V Ambush
MOUNT & URBAN OPERATIONS
Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) is one of the most difficult combat environments. This document is not intended to be a comprehensive ‘how-to’ but rather a quick introduction to some of the fundamentals of combat in a MOUT environment.
URBAN ENVIRONMENTS ARE DIFFICULT BECAUSE …
Players require special training to learn how to cope with the 3-dimensional aspect of urban terrain, special entry and clearing techniques, and coordinated action without the traditional means of communication.
Command and control are difficult because communications are degraded, teams become quickly fragmented and separated, and individual players become easily disoriented.
Logistics present special challenges as MOUT operations are physically more strenuous thereby requiring more food and water, ammunition is consumed more rapidly, and operations require special equipment.
MOUT vs. CQB
There are a couple of fundamental differences between MOUT and police or SWAT-type CQB operations.
CQB typically only involves one building with a very low expectation that the building in question will be reinforced or that fire may be taken from adjacent buildings.
In a CQB action, once the building is cleared, the action is typically considered to be over. The team can rest and rearm in a secure environment. In MOUT, the team must perform a series of building clearings, stopping to rest and rearm along the way, and remembering to maintain 360 security at all times.
MOUT consists of a total urban environment, not one tightly controlled building.
Command and Control
One of the most difficult aspects of MOUT is command and control since units easily get disoriented and an attack can quickly break down because teams cannot conduct a coordinated attack.
Fundamentals Of Urban Operations
Aggressive Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance.
Speak to non-combatants, they will be the greatest source of intelligence.
Search down combatants, if you see a folder next to the body that's intel.
When Non-combatants of intel is found a map marker will appear on the map for a short time, you need to open the map and mark it quickly
Avoid the Attrition Approach
You’re not buying a house get in and get out
The longer you stay the more opportunity the enemy has to set up ieds and ambushes
Control the Essential
An single unit cannot control whole cities, control intersections that provide visibility to the operation area
Minimize Collateral Damage.
The more collateral the more the non-combatants will help the combatants or even join them
Because of how close units are operating, good communications will prevent fratricide
Urban areas mainly consist of man-made features such as buildings that provide cover and concealment, limit fields of observation and fire, and block movement of forces, especially mechanized or armored forces. Thick-walled buildings provide ready-made, fortified positions. Thin-walled buildings may have fields of observation and fire that may prove important. Another important aspect is that urban areas complicate, confuse and degrade the commander’s ability to identify and control his forces. All these factors will influence the urban battle space.
Use Of Hand Grenade
Combat in urban areas often requires extensive use of hand grenades. Unless the ROE prevent it, use grenades before assaulting defended areas, moving through breaches, or entering unsecured areas.
Three types of hand grenades can be used when assaulting an urban objective:
Fragmentation. (be very careful some ARMA buildings will not stop ACE fragments)
MOUT IN THE OFFENSE
Taking an objective in the MOUT environment should be a well-planned, rehearsed operation consisting of 5 distinct phases.
Phase I – Isolate Objective. Support element cuts off entry into or exit out of the target and creates a controlled environment for the assault element.
Phase II A– Suppress Objective. Any firing position that can bring fire to bear as the assault element moves up to the objective is suppressed with a heavy volume of fire.
Phase II B– If stealth is essential use only overwatch,
Phase III – Advance Assault Team. As soon as the assault element is at the objective, the support element’s role changes to providing overwatch and information about the situation outside the objective.
Phase IV – Clear Objective. The assault element clears the building in much the same way we practice for CQB. The approach should be methodical, comprehensive, and done with 360 security at all times.
Phase V – Consolidate Team. Once the assault element clears the building, the support element is brought up, assigned to security positions, and then team rests, rearms, and reequips for the next mission.
MOUT in the Defense
The defender in a MOUT environment holds nearly all of the advantages and should exploit them all to harass, delay, disrupt, and ultimately defeat the attacker.
Knowledge to the battlefield. The urban area typically belongs to the defender who is familiar with the best ways in and out of buildings, layout of sewer systems, etc.
Time to prepare. Defenders are able to prepare defensive positions, stockpile food and ammunition, prepare demolitions and traps, and many other things that make the attacker’s life difficult.
Ready-made defensive positions. Buildings can be easily turned into pre-build bunkers, reinforced with sandbags, furniture, debris etc.
Establishing a Basic Defense
Just like in open terrain, defensive positions must be mutually supporting so that any attacker comes under fire from multiple directions.
Snipers and scouts can be deployed forward of the main defense to harass the attacker, force premature deployment, and generally wear down attacking units.
Never stand in front of one, or move across a window opening, duck craw, or go another way
A common mistake is selecting a fighting position that is directly in front of a window. A better position is usually found 3-4 feet back in the shadows of the building. This affords better cover and concealment. And less chance someone will see your weapon sticking out of the window.
Urban Terrain Analysis Matrix
Clearing / CQB
Warning wall of words to follow, it's a lot to take in , and the only way to learn is to do
Fundamentals Of Close Quarters Combat
Ten Fundamentals: The ten fundamentals of close quarters combat address actions soldiers take while moving along confined corridors to the room to be cleared, while preparing to enter the room, during room entry and target engagement, and after contact. Team members must:
Move tactically and silently while securing the corridors to the room to be cleared. Carry only the minimum amount of equipment. Rucksacks and loose items carried by soldiers tire them and slow their pace, and cause noise.
Arrive undetected at the entry in the correct order of entrance, prepared to enter on a single command.
Enter quickly and dominate the room. Move immediately to positions that allow complete control of the room and provide unobstructed fields of fire.
Eliminate all enemies within the room by the use of fast, accurate, and discriminating fires.
Gain and maintain immediate control of the situation and all personnel in the room.
Confirm whether enemy casualties are wounded or dead. Disarm/segregate the wounded. Search casualties.
Immediately perform a cursory search of the room. Determine if a detailed search is required.
Evacuate all wounded and any friendly dead.
Mark the room as cleared, using simple, clearly identifiable markings in accordance with our unit SOP. (ACE Tagging)
Maintain security at all times and be prepared to react to enemy contact at any moment. Do not neglect rear security.
High Intensity Versus Precision Clearing Techniques
Precision clearing techniques do not replace other techniques currently being used to clear buildings and rooms during high-intensity combat. Specifically, they do not replace the clearing technique in which a fragmentation or concussion grenade is thrown into a room before the friendly forces enter. Precision room clearing techniques are used when the tactical situation calls for room-by-room clearing of a relatively intact building in which enemy combatants and noncombatants Hostages or civilians) may be intermixed. They involve increased risk in order to clear a building methodically, rather than using overwhelming firepower to eliminate or neutralize all its inhabitants.
From a conceptual standpoint, standard high-intensity room clearing drills can be thought of as a deliberate attack. The task is to seize control of the room with the purpose being the neutralization of the enemy in the room. The fragmentation and or concussion grenades can be thought of as the preparatory fires used before the assault. As in a deliberate attack against any objective, the assaulting elements move into position using covered and concealed routes. The preparatory fires (fragmentation and or concussion grenades) are initiated when soldiers are as close to the objective as they can get without being injured by the fires. The assault element follows the preparatory fires onto the objective as closely as possible. A rapid, violent assault overwhelms and destroys the enemy force and seizes the objective.
Compared to the deliberate attack represented by high-intensity room clearing techniques, precision room clearing techniques are more conceptually like a reconnaissance in force or perhaps an infiltration attack. During a reconnaissance in force, the friendly unit seeks to determine the enemy's locations, dispositions, strength, and intentions. Once the enemy is located, the friendly force is fully prepared to engage and destroy it, especially if surprise is achieved. The friendly force retains the options of not employing preparatory fires (fragmentation and or concussion grenades) if they are not called for (the enemy is not in the room) or if they are inappropriate (there are noncombatants present also). The attacking unit may choose to create a diversion (use a stun grenade) to momentarily distract the defender while they enter and seize the objective.
The determination of which techniques to employ is up to the leader on the scene and is based on his analysis of the existing conditions. The deliberate attack (high-intensity techniques), with its devastating suppressive and preparatory fires, neutralizes everyone in the room and is less dangerous to the assaulting troops. The reconnaissance in force (precision techniques) conserves ammunition, reduces damage, and minimizes the chance of noncombatant casualties. Unfortunately, even when well-executed, it is very stressful and hazardous for friendly troops.
Certain precision room clearing techniques, such as methods of squad and fire team movement, the various firing stances, weapon positioning, and reflexive shooting, are useful for all combat in confined areas. Other techniques, such as entering a room without first neutralizing known enemy occupants by fire or explosives, are appropriate in only some tactical situations.
Generally, if a room or building is occupied by an alerted enemy force that is determined to resist, and if most or all noncombatants are clear, overwhelming firepower should be employed to avoid friendly casualties. In such a situation, supporting fires, demolitions, and fragmentation grenades should be used to neutralize a space before friendly troops enter.
In some combat situations the use of heavy supporting fires and demolitions would cause unacceptable collateral damage or would unnecessarily slow the unit’s movement. In other situations, often during stability and support operations, enemy combatants are so intermixed with noncombatants that friendly forces cannot, in good conscience, use all available supporting fires. Room-by-room clearing may be necessary. At such times, precision room clearing techniques are most appropriate.
PRINCIPLES OF PRECISION ROOM CLEARING
Battles that occur at close quarters, such as within a room or hallway, must be planned and executed with care. Units must train, practice, and rehearse precision room clearing techniques until each fire team and squad operates smoothly. Each unit member must understand the principles of precision room clearing: surprise, speed, and controlled violence of action.
Surprise is the key to a successful assault at close quarters. The fire team or squad clearing the room must achieve surprise, if only for a few seconds, by deceiving, distracting, or startling the enemy. Sometimes stun grenades may be used to achieve surprise. These are more effective against a non-alert, poorly trained enemy than against alert, well-trained soldiers.
Speed provides a measure of security to the clearing unit. It allows soldiers to use the first few vital seconds provided by surprise to their maximum advantage. In precision room clearing, speed is not how fast you enter the room, rather it's how fast the threat is eliminated and the room is cleared.
Controlled Violence of Action
Controlled violence of action eliminates or neutralizes the enemy while giving him the least chance of inflicting friendly casualties. It is not limited to the application of firepower only, but also involves a soldier mind-set of complete domination. Each of the principles of precision room clearing has a synergistic relationship to the others. Controlled violence coupled with speed increases surprise. Hence, successful surprise allows increased speed.
DEFINITION OF POINTS OF DOMINATION: The points of domination technique call for the tactical team to rapidly penetrate deep into a room and assume points of domination with interlocking fields of fire from 2-3 of the room's corners.
FUNDAMENTALS OF PRECISION ROOM CLEARING
The ten fundamentals of precision room clearing address actions soldiers take while moving along confined corridors to the room to be cleared, while preparing to enter the room, during room entry and target engagement, and after contact.
Move tactically and silently while securing the corridors to the room to be cleared.
Carry only the minimum amount of equipment. (Rucksacks and loose items carried by soldiers tire them, slow their pace, and cause noise.)
Arrive undetected at the entry to the room in the correct order of entrance, prepared to enter on a single command.
Enter quickly and dominate the room. Move immediately to positions that allow complete control of the room and provide unobstructed fields of fire.
Eliminate all enemies in the room by fast, accurate, and discriminating fires.
Gain and maintain immediate control of the situation and all personnel in the room.
Confirm whether enemy casualties are wounded or dead. Disarm, segregate, and treat the wounded. Search all enemy casualties.
Perform a cursory search of the room. Determine if a detailed search is required.
Evacuate all wounded and any friendly dead.
Mark the room as cleared using a simple, clearly identifiable marking in accordance with the unit SOP.
Maintain security and be prepared to react to enemy contact at any moment. Do not neglect rear security.
COMPOSITION OF THE CLEARING TEAM
Precision room clearing techniques are designed to be executed by the standard four-man team. Because of the confined spaces typical of building- and room-clearing operations, units larger than four-man teams quickly become unwieldy.
An integral part of precision room clearing is the ability to gain access quickly to the rooms to be cleared. Breaching techniques vary based on the type of construction encountered and the types of munitions available to the breaching element. Techniques range from simple mechanical breaching to complex, specialized demolitions.
Simple mechanical breaching is planned primary breaching method. Simple mechanical breaching is an assumed capability within all units. (Opening the door, aka turning the door knob)
Demolitions are planned as a backup to a mechanical breaching.
Clearing team members must approach the breach point quickly, quietly, and in standard order. This approach preserves the element of surprise and allows for quick entry and domination of the room. The order of movement to the breach point is determined by the method of breach and intended actions at the breach point. If one member of the clearing team is armed with the SAW rather than an M4 rifle or carbine, he should be designated as the last man in.
Mechanical Breach. A suggested order of movement for a mechanical breach is the initial assault team in order, followed by the breach man or element. At the breach point, the assault team leader brings the breach team forward while the assault team provides local security. After the breach is conducted, the breach team moves aside and provides local security as the assault team enters the breach.
Explosive (Demolition) Breach. The number 1 man provides security at the doorway. The engineer carries the demolition charge and places it. The number 3 and 4 man provides security overhead, and rear security. After the demolition charge is placed, the team moves to covered positions and prepares to enter in the standard order.
CONSIDERATIONS FOR ENTRY
The entire team enters the room as quickly and smoothly as possible and clears the doorway immediately. If possible, the team moves from a covered or concealed position already in their entry order. Ideally, the team arrives and passes through the entry point without having to stop.
1) The door is the focal point of anyone in the room. It is known as the fatal funnel, because it focuses attention at the precise point where the individual team members are the most vulnerable. Moving into the room quickly reduces the chance anyone being hit by enemy fire directed at the doorway.
2) On the signal to go, the clearing team moves from covered or concealed positions through the door quickly and takes up positions inside the room that allow it to completely dominate the room and eliminate the threat. Team members stop movement only after they have cleared the door and reached their designated point of domination. The first man's position is deep into the near corner of the room. The depth of his movement is determined by the size of the room, any obstacles in the room, such as furniture, and by the number and location of enemy and noncombatants in the room.
3) To make precision room clearing techniques work, each member of the team must know his sector of fire and how his sector overlaps and links with the sectors of the other team members. Team members do not move to the point of domination and then engage their targets. They engage targets as they move to their designated point. However, engagements must not slow movement to their points of domination. Team members may shoot from as short a range as 1 to 2 inches. They engage the most immediate enemy threats first.
4) Each clearing team member has a designated sector of fire unique to him initially and expands to overlap sectors of the other team members.
5) The team members move toward their points of domination, engaging all targets in their sector. Team members must exercise fire control and discriminate between hostile and noncombatant room occupants. Shooting is done without stopping, using reflexive shooting techniques. Because the soldiers are moving and shooting at the same time, they must move using careful hurry. (The pictures below show all Four team members at their points of domination and their overlapping sectors of fire.)
A) The first man, enters the room and eliminates the immediate threat. He has the option of going left or right, normally moving along the path of least resistance to one of two corners. When using a doorway as the point of entry, the path of least resistance is determined initially based on the way the door opens; if the door opens inward he plans to move away from the hinges. If the door opens outward, he plans to move toward the hinged side. Upon entering, the size of the room, enemy situation, and furniture or other obstacles that hinder or channel movement become factors that influence the number1 man’s direction of movement.
B) The direction each man moves in should not be preplanned unless the exact room layout is known. Each man should go in a direction opposite the man in front of him Every team member must know the sectors and duties of each position.
C) As the first man goes through the entry point, he can usually see into the far corner of the room. He eliminates any immediate threat and continues to move along the wall if possible and to the first corner, where he assumes a position of domination facing into the room.
First man enters
6) The second man (team leader), entering almost simultaneously with the first, moves in the opposite direction, following the wall and staying out of the center The second man must clear the entry point, clear the immediate threat area, clear his corner, and move to a dominating position on his side of the room.
Second man enters a room.
7) The third man simply goes opposite of the second man inside the room at least one meter from the entry point and moves to a position that dominates his sector
Third man enters a room.
8) The fourth man moves opposite of the third man and moves to a position that dominates his sector
Fourth man enters a room.
NOTE: If the path of least resistance takes the first man to the left, then all points of
domination is the mirror image of those shown in the diagrams.
9) Points of domination should not be in front of doors or windows so team members are not silhouetted to the outside of the room (Figure 3-31). No movement should mask the fire of any of the other team members
Points of domination and sectors of fire.
10) On order, any member of the assault team may move deeper into the room overwatched by the other team members.
11) Once the room is cleared, the team leader signals to the squad leader that the room has been cleared.
12) The Troop leader marks the room. The team leader determines whether or not his team can continue to clear through the building.
13) The team reorganizes as necessary. Leaders redistribute the ammunition.
14) The team leader reports to the troop leader when the room is clear.
Two Man Clearing Example
COMMAND AND CONTROL VERBIAGE
In an environment where teams are shooting and moving, command and control is critical. The assaulters will be moving very close to each other as they engage targets, and the high volume of noise from explosives, simulators, and individual weapons will make communications extremely difficult. It is therefore imperative that the verbiage used during the assault consist of terms that each assaulter is familiar with and knows how to respond to. The terms listed below should be a part of each team’s vocabulary.
STATUS: A command given by the assault team leader that requires all team members to report whether their sectors are clear and whether they are prepared to continue the assault.
UP (ONE UP, TWO UP, THREE UP, FOUR UP): A reply by each team member to the other team members acknowledging that his sector is clear and secured and he is prepared to continue the assault.
DEEP CLEAR PROBLEM: The individual assaulter cannot clear a portion of his sector because of something obscuring his vision (i.e. a table, a couch, etc.) Whenever an assaulter encounters a deep clear problem, he should identify the area he cannot see. For example, "Deep problem to my front. I cannot see behind the green couch."
ROOM CLEAR: A signal from the assault team leader to the team members and follow-on teams that the room has been cleared and is secure. Follow on teams can now safely enter the building and assault the next room.
DOOR TO MY (GIVE DIRECTION) STACK RIGHT/LEFT: A command given by the assault team leader in a secured room that requires the follow-on team to position themselves on the right/left side of the door. This will eliminate the confusion caused when the follow-on team stacks up on the wrong side of a locked door and has to move to allow the breacher to breach the door.
BREACHER: A signal to the demolitions man/mechanical breacher that a locked door has been encountered and he is needed to breach the locking mechanism.
BREACH: A command given by the number two man that requires the breacher to breach the locking mechanism. A visual signal should be used at the same time the verbal command is given. A fist thrust downward where the breacher can see works well. The reason both signals are given is that with the noise surrounding the team, the breacher may not hear the verbal signal.
COMING OUT: A signal given by an individual or a team that they are ready to exit a room and come back into an occupied hallway.
COME OUT: A reply given by the security element or a follow-on team that informs the team that it is all right for them to come out into the hallway.
COMING IN: A signal given by an individual or a team when they are preparing to enter an occupied room.
COME IN: A reply given by personnel in the room that it is all right for the individual or the team to enter the room.
DRY HOLE: A room or a structure that is empty of personnel or equipment.
MAN DOWN: A command given when an assaulter has been injured and cannot continue with the mission.
HELP LEFT/RIGHT: A request given by an individual or a team for additional personnel for security or clearing purposes.
CEASE FIRE: A command given by any person that requires all shooters to cease firing because of an unsafe act or an injury to an individual.
SHOT: Given by any team member to alert others that he is engaging targets outside of the room.
SHORT: Given by team member to signal a small room and that all team members should not enter.
LONG: A command given to tell another team member to take up security further into the room.
GRENADE! A command given by any soldier, when an enemy grenade has been thrown. the soldier should identify the location of the grenade, if possible.
GUN DOWN: A signal given when an individual’s weapon has malfunctioned and is being corrected.
GUN UP: A signal given when an individual has corrected a malfunction and is ready for action.
RELOADING: A signal given when an individual is reloading any weapon system. This signal is followed by “GUN UP” when ready.
Requires a Urban rappelling Mod
Rappel of anything that's more than 4-5m high. This includes buildings, cliffs, towers, etc. Everything works as long as you can walk to an edge.
Custom animations and sounds
Supports swinging side to side, pushing off the wall, and climbing back to the top.
Fire while rappelling!
You can switch between your rifle and pistol while rappelling. If you run the Mod locally
Walk to any edge that's 4-5m high. Using your action menu, either rappel yourself or your AI units.
Once rappelling, here's what you can do:
Move down rope (use move backwards key: s)
Move up rope (use move forward key: w)
Wall walk left (use move left key: a) must be facing & against surface to walk.
Wall walk right (use move right key: d) must be facing & against surface to walk.
Push off wall (use sprint key: left shift) must be facing & against the surface to push off.
Push off the wall (hold down sprint key & release: left shift) must be facing & against the surface to push off.
Take out weapon (use fire: left mouse clicks or raise weapon key: left ctrl twice)
Lower weapon (use lower weapon key: left ctrl twice)
Switch weapon (use your action menu to select rifle or pistol)
Climb back to top (move up rope to the top, and then use action menu)
Detach from rope (use action menu)
ACE Fast Roping
Try not to use AI flown Helicopters, they tend to be jerks and cut the ropes early.
The default rope length is about 30m. If the heli is flying higher than that, you will take the fall damage equivalent to the distance between the end of the rope and the ground.
There are longer Ropes in the arsenal, you need to put them in the Helicopters inventory to use.
Only 1 rope can be used simultaneously, therefore, only one soldier can (safely) fast rope at a time. It is possible that with a good enough interval, two could safely fast rope close together.
Fast roping at the same time as someone else will cause the latest to bounce weirdly and get injured on landing.
Flying too fast will cause the ropes to break off the hooks.
Under 10km/h of horizontal speed, you should be able to fast rope safely.
You should wait for the rope to stabilize before using it.
Every time someone goes down the rope, a new rope is created with the same anchor point
Requires a Advance rappelling Mod
Rappel up to 6 players or AI from any helicopter at the same time (depending on helicopter size)
Enhanced rope physics. Takes into account wind speeds (from the rotor and environment) and air resistance. Players will swing around if the helicopter doesn't stay still.
Players control when and how quickly to descend down the rope using the "move backward" key
Supports rappelling onto tops of buildings, through trees, etc
Command AI in your group to rappel from a helicopter. AI will automatically descend the rope once told to rappel
Get into any helicopter (not as pilot)
Once more than 5m off the ground, actions become available to rappel either yourself or your AI units
Once you are rappelling, press the "move backwards" key to descend down the rope (note: AI will auto-descend)
This chapter is meant to provide minimum recommended movement techniques, dismount procedures, and battle drills that individual units can use as a frame of reference.
A Lot of the team and troop movement formations and techniques apply to vehicles.
The four principles of mounted movement for tactical vehicles are:
360 Degree Security—Combining maximum all-around visibility for situational awareness, interlocking sectors of fire, and mutual support. 360 degree security is necessary to prevent vehicles from approaching from any direction.
Deterrence—Presenting a menacing and aggressive posture demonstrating the readiness and willingness to engage. Maintain an aggressive posture in order to keep vehicles from approaching too close. The vehicles own the road.
Agility—Adapting to conditions whether they are environmental or enemy.
Unpredictability—Minimizing the enemy’s ability to accurately observe, time, or otherwise predict the movement of tactical vehicles.
Leaders must take into account road conditions, drivers’ abilities, vehicle capabilities, vehicle intervals, and safety considerations along with the potential threat when determining vehicle speeds.
Control speeds to prevent spreading out or rear vehicle from falling behind.
Speed is determined by the slowest vehicle or the rear vehicle’s ability to catch up.
Recommend 25-50m between vehicles on the open road based on mission analysis. Tighten intervals in urban areas, but maintain sufficient intervals to maintain maneuverability.
Vehicles should maintain visual contact with the vehicles to their front and rear.
ACE3 Vehicle Locking
Always lock your vehicle when not in use, the AI will commandeer it, (steal).
The Engineer Role is required, along with a tool kit.
Gunners and drivers stay in the vehicles, everyone else dismounts and pulls 360 security
IEDs, MINES, and BOOBY TRAPS (OH MY)
IEDs are one of the greatest threats to vehicles and are often used to initiate an ambush. vehicle personnel should always expect an ambush immediately following an IED detonation. Leaders should brief vehicles personnel on the latest IED threat: what types of IEDs are being used and where they have previously been emplaced along the route.
The bottom line is to protect the vehicles. All personnel must maintain situational awareness looking for actual IEDs and likely IED hiding places. Varying routes and times, switching lanes at random, entering overpasses on one side of the road and exiting on the other, training weapons on overpasses as the vehicles passes under them, and avoiding chokepoints will reduce the risk from these devices.
When to expect an IED attack.
VBIEDs, (Vehicle-borne IED)
Can be initiated by either the driver, an occupant, or remotely. SUVs, pickup trucks, and delivery trucks can carry a large payload. Watch for abandoned vehicles, vehicles parked where they do not belong, and vehicles with loose wires hanging off of them. Mobile VBIEDs may ignore warnings or wave-offs when approaching checkpoints, TCPs or convoys.
Hardened vehicles in the lead
Avoid Driving on the shoulder of the road
Avoid fresh earth, and trash